Global Effervescent Packaging Market 2017 - Demand, Insights, Analysis, Opportunities, Segmentation and Forecast to 2022

 Buy Now

   Published Date : Sep-2017   |    Format : PDF   |    Pages : 107
This report studies Effervescent Packaging in Global market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2012 to 2016, and forecast to 2022.

This report focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering
    Sanner GmbH
    Romaco Pharmatechnik GmbH
    Parekhplast India Ltd.
    Tower Laboratories Ltd.
    Oracle Packaging, Inc.
    Nutrilo GmbH
    Hebei XINFUDA Plastic Products Co., Ltd.
    Unither Pharmaceuticals
    Amerilab Technologies, Inc.

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
    By Packaging Type
        Bottles
        Tubes
        Sachets
        Stick Packs
        Paperboard Cartons
    By Material
        PE
        PP
        PVC

By Application, the market can be split into
    Pharmaceuticals
    Dietary Supplements & Nutraceuticals
    Cosmetics & Personal Care Products

By Regions, this report covers (we can add the regions/countries as you want)
    North America
    China
    Europe
    Southeast Asia
    Japan
    India

If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.

Global Effervescent Packaging Market Professional Survey Report 2017
1 Industry Overview of Effervescent Packaging
    1.1 Definition and Specifications of Effervescent Packaging
        1.1.1 Definition of Effervescent Packaging
        1.1.2 Specifications of Effervescent Packaging
    1.2 Classification of Effervescent Packaging
        1.2.1 Bottles
        1.2.2 Tubes
        1.2.3 Sachets
        1.2.4 Stick Packs
        1.2.5 Paperboard Cartons
    1.3 Applications of Effervescent Packaging
        1.3.1 Pharmaceuticals
        1.3.2 Dietary Supplements & Nutraceuticals
        1.3.3 Cosmetics & Personal Care Products
    1.4 Market Segment by Regions
        1.4.1 North America
        1.4.2 China
        1.4.3 Europe
        1.4.4 Southeast Asia
        1.4.5 Japan
        1.4.6 India

2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Effervescent Packaging
    2.1 Raw Material and Suppliers
    2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Effervescent Packaging
    2.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Effervescent Packaging
    2.4 Industry Chain Structure of Effervescent Packaging

3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Effervescent Packaging
    3.1 Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Effervescent Packaging Major Manufacturers in 2016
    3.2 Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Effervescent Packaging Major Manufacturers in 2016
    3.3 R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Effervescent Packaging Major Manufacturers in 2016
    3.4 Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Effervescent Packaging Major Manufacturers in 2016

4 Global Effervescent Packaging Overall Market Overview
    4.1 2012-2017E Overall Market Analysis
    4.2 Capacity Analysis
        4.2.1 2012-2017E Global Effervescent Packaging Capacity and Growth Rate Analysis
        4.2.2 2016 Effervescent Packaging Capacity Analysis (Company Segment)
    4.3 Sales Analysis
        4.3.1 2012-2017E Global Effervescent Packaging Sales and Growth Rate Analysis
        4.3.2 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales Analysis (Company Segment)
    4.4 Sales Price Analysis
        4.4.1 2012-2017E Global Effervescent Packaging Sales Price
        4.4.2 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment)

5 Effervescent Packaging Regional Market Analysis
    5.1 North America Effervescent Packaging Market Analysis
        5.1.1 North America Effervescent Packaging Market Overview
        5.1.2 North America 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.1.3 North America 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales Price Analysis
        5.1.4 North America 2016 Effervescent Packaging Market Share Analysis
    5.2 China Effervescent Packaging Market Analysis
        5.2.1 China Effervescent Packaging Market Overview
        5.2.2 China 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.2.3 China 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales Price Analysis
        5.2.4 China 2016 Effervescent Packaging Market Share Analysis
    5.3 Europe Effervescent Packaging Market Analysis
        5.3.1 Europe Effervescent Packaging Market Overview
        5.3.2 Europe 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.3.3 Europe 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales Price Analysis
        5.3.4 Europe 2016 Effervescent Packaging Market Share Analysis
    5.4 Southeast Asia Effervescent Packaging Market Analysis
        5.4.1 Southeast Asia Effervescent Packaging Market Overview
        5.4.2 Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.4.3 Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales Price Analysis
        5.4.4 Southeast Asia 2016 Effervescent Packaging Market Share Analysis
    5.5 Japan Effervescent Packaging Market Analysis
        5.5.1 Japan Effervescent Packaging Market Overview
        5.5.2 Japan 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.5.3 Japan 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales Price Analysis
        5.5.4 Japan 2016 Effervescent Packaging Market Share Analysis
    5.6 India Effervescent Packaging Market Analysis
        5.6.1 India Effervescent Packaging Market Overview
        5.6.2 India 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Local Supply, Import, Export, Local Consumption Analysis
        5.6.3 India 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales Price Analysis
        5.6.4 India 2016 Effervescent Packaging Market Share Analysis

6 Global 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Segment Market Analysis (by Type)
    6.1 Global 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales by Type
    6.2 Different Types of Effervescent Packaging Product Interview Price Analysis
    6.3 Different Types of Effervescent Packaging Product Driving Factors Analysis
        6.3.1 By Packaging Type of Effervescent Packaging Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        6.3.2 By Material of Effervescent Packaging Growth Driving Factor Analysis

7 Global 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Segment Market Analysis (by Application)
    7.1 Global 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Consumption by Application
    7.2 Different Application of Effervescent Packaging Product Interview Price Analysis
    7.3 Different Application of Effervescent Packaging Product Driving Factors Analysis
        7.3.1 Pharmaceuticals of Effervescent Packaging Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        7.3.2 Dietary Supplements & Nutraceuticals of Effervescent Packaging Growth Driving Factor Analysis
        7.3.3 Cosmetics & Personal Care Products of Effervescent Packaging Growth Driving Factor Analysis

8 Major Manufacturers Analysis of Effervescent Packaging
    8.1 Sanner GmbH
        8.1.1 Company Profile
        8.1.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.1.2.1 Product A
            8.1.2.2 Product B
        8.1.3 Sanner GmbH 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.1.4 Sanner GmbH 2016 Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.2 Romaco Pharmatechnik GmbH
        8.2.1 Company Profile
        8.2.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.2.2.1 Product A
            8.2.2.2 Product B
        8.2.3 Romaco Pharmatechnik GmbH 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.2.4 Romaco Pharmatechnik GmbH 2016 Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.3 Parekhplast India Ltd.
        8.3.1 Company Profile
        8.3.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.3.2.1 Product A
            8.3.2.2 Product B
        8.3.3 Parekhplast India Ltd. 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.3.4 Parekhplast India Ltd. 2016 Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.4 Tower Laboratories Ltd.
        8.4.1 Company Profile
        8.4.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.4.2.1 Product A
            8.4.2.2 Product B
        8.4.3 Tower Laboratories Ltd. 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.4.4 Tower Laboratories Ltd. 2016 Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.5 Oracle Packaging, Inc.
        8.5.1 Company Profile
        8.5.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.5.2.1 Product A
            8.5.2.2 Product B
        8.5.3 Oracle Packaging, Inc. 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.5.4 Oracle Packaging, Inc. 2016 Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.6 Nutrilo GmbH
        8.6.1 Company Profile
        8.6.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.6.2.1 Product A
            8.6.2.2 Product B
        8.6.3 Nutrilo GmbH 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.6.4 Nutrilo GmbH 2016 Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.7 Hebei XINFUDA Plastic Products Co., Ltd.
        8.7.1 Company Profile
        8.7.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.7.2.1 Product A
            8.7.2.2 Product B
        8.7.3 Hebei XINFUDA Plastic Products Co., Ltd. 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.7.4 Hebei XINFUDA Plastic Products Co., Ltd. 2016 Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.8 Unither Pharmaceuticals
        8.8.1 Company Profile
        8.8.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.8.2.1 Product A
            8.8.2.2 Product B
        8.8.3 Unither Pharmaceuticals 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.8.4 Unither Pharmaceuticals 2016 Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution Analysis
    8.9 Amerilab Technologies, Inc.
        8.9.1 Company Profile
        8.9.2 Product Picture and Specifications
            8.9.2.1 Product A
            8.9.2.2 Product B
        8.9.3 Amerilab Technologies, Inc. 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis
        8.9.4 Amerilab Technologies, Inc. 2016 Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution Analysis

9 Development Trend of Analysis of Effervescent Packaging Market
    9.1 Global Effervescent Packaging Market Trend Analysis
        9.1.1 Global 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Market Size (Volume and Value) Forecast
        9.1.2 Global 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Sales Price Forecast
    9.2 Effervescent Packaging Regional Market Trend
        9.2.1 North America 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Consumption Forecast
        9.2.2 China 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Consumption Forecast
        9.2.3 Europe 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Consumption Forecast
        9.2.4 Southeast Asia 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Consumption Forecast
        9.2.5 Japan 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Consumption Forecast
        9.2.6 India 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Consumption Forecast
    9.3 Effervescent Packaging Market Trend (Product Type)
    9.4 Effervescent Packaging Market Trend (Application)

10 Effervescent Packaging Marketing Type Analysis
    10.1 Effervescent Packaging Regional Marketing Type Analysis
    10.2 Effervescent Packaging International Trade Type Analysis
    10.3 Traders or Distributors with Contact Information of Effervescent Packaging by Region
    10.4 Effervescent Packaging Supply Chain Analysis

11 Consumers Analysis of Effervescent Packaging
    11.1 Consumer 1 Analysis
    11.2 Consumer 2 Analysis
    11.3 Consumer 3 Analysis
    11.4 Consumer 4 Analysis
    …

12 Conclusion of the Global Effervescent Packaging Market Professional Survey Report 2017
    Methodology
    Analyst Introduction
    Data Source


List of Tables and Figures
    Figure Picture of Effervescent Packaging
    Table Product Specifications of Effervescent Packaging
    Table Classification of Effervescent Packaging
    Figure Global Production Market Share of Effervescent Packaging by Type in 2016
    Figure Bottles Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of Bottles
    Figure Tubes Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of Tubes
    Figure Sachets Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of Sachets
    Figure Stick Packs Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of Stick Packs
    Figure Paperboard Cartons Picture
    Table Major Manufacturers of Paperboard Cartons
    Table Applications of Effervescent Packaging
    Figure Global Consumption Volume Market Share of Effervescent Packaging by Application in 2016
    Figure Pharmaceuticals Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Pharmaceuticals
    Figure Dietary Supplements & Nutraceuticals Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Dietary Supplements & Nutraceuticals
    Figure Cosmetics & Personal Care Products Examples
    Table Major Consumers in Cosmetics & Personal Care Products
    Figure Market Share of Effervescent Packaging by Regions
    Figure North America Effervescent Packaging Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure China Effervescent Packaging Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure Europe Effervescent Packaging Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure Southeast Asia Effervescent Packaging Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure Japan Effervescent Packaging Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Figure India Effervescent Packaging Market Size (Million USD) (2012-2022)
    Table Effervescent Packaging Raw Material and Suppliers
    Table Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Effervescent Packaging in 2016
    Figure Manufacturing Process Analysis of Effervescent Packaging
    Figure Industry Chain Structure of Effervescent Packaging
    Table Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Effervescent Packaging Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Effervescent Packaging Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Effervescent Packaging Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Effervescent Packaging Major Manufacturers in 2016
    Table Global Capacity, Sales , Price, Cost, Sales Revenue (M USD) and Gross Margin of Effervescent Packaging 2012-2017
    Figure Global 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Market Size (Volume) and Growth Rate
    Figure Global 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Market Size (Value) and Growth Rate
    Table 2012-2017E Global Effervescent Packaging Capacity and Growth Rate
    Table 2016 Global Effervescent Packaging Capacity (K MT) List (Company Segment)
    Table 2012-2017E Global Effervescent Packaging Sales (K MT) and Growth Rate
    Table 2016 Global Effervescent Packaging Sales (K MT) List (Company Segment)
    Table 2012-2017E Global Effervescent Packaging Sales Price (USD/MT)
    Table 2016 Global Effervescent Packaging Sales Price (USD/MT) List (Company Segment)
    Figure North America Capacity Overview
    Table North America Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K MT) of Effervescent Packaging 2012-2017E 
    Figure North America 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales Price (USD/MT)
    Figure North America 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales Market Share
    Figure China Capacity Overview
    Table China Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K MT) of Effervescent Packaging 2012-2017E 
    Figure China 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales Price (USD/MT) 
    Figure China 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales Market Share
    Figure Europe Capacity Overview
    Table Europe Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K MT) of Effervescent Packaging 2012-2017E
    Figure Europe 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales Price (USD/MT)
    Figure Europe 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales Market Share
    Figure Southeast Asia Capacity Overview
    Table Southeast Asia Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K MT) of Effervescent Packaging 2012-2017E
    Figure Southeast Asia 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales Price (USD/MT)
    Figure Southeast Asia 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales Market Share
    Figure Japan Capacity Overview
    Table Japan Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K MT) of Effervescent Packaging 2012-2017E
    Figure Japan 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales Price (USD/MT)
    Figure Japan 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales Market Share
    Figure India Capacity Overview
    Table India Supply, Import, Export and Consumption (K MT) of Effervescent Packaging 2012-2017E
    Figure India 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales Price (USD/MT)
    Figure India 2016 Effervescent Packaging Sales Market Share
    Table Global 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales (K MT) by Type
    Table Different Types Effervescent Packaging Product Interview Price
    Table Global 2012-2017E Effervescent Packaging Sales (K MT) by Application
    Table Different Application Effervescent Packaging Product Interview Price
    Table Sanner GmbH Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Sanner GmbH Effervescent Packaging Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
    Figure 2016 Sanner GmbH Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution
    Table Romaco Pharmatechnik GmbH Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Romaco Pharmatechnik GmbH Effervescent Packaging Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
    Figure 2016 Romaco Pharmatechnik GmbH Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution
    Table Parekhplast India Ltd. Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2015 Parekhplast India Ltd. Effervescent Packaging Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
    Figure 2016 Parekhplast India Ltd. Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution
    Table Tower Laboratories Ltd. Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Tower Laboratories Ltd. Effervescent Packaging Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
    Figure 2016 Tower Laboratories Ltd. Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution
    Table Oracle Packaging, Inc. Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Oracle Packaging, Inc. Effervescent Packaging Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
    Figure 2016 Oracle Packaging, Inc. Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution
    Table Nutrilo GmbH Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Nutrilo GmbH Effervescent Packaging Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
    Figure 2016 Nutrilo GmbH Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution
    Table Hebei XINFUDA Plastic Products Co., Ltd. Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Hebei XINFUDA Plastic Products Co., Ltd. Effervescent Packaging Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
    Figure 2016 Hebei XINFUDA Plastic Products Co., Ltd. Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution
    Table Unither Pharmaceuticals Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Unither Pharmaceuticals Effervescent Packaging Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
    Figure 2016 Unither Pharmaceuticals Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution
    Table Amerilab Technologies, Inc. Information List
    Table Product A Overview
    Table Product B Overview
    Table 2016 Amerilab Technologies, Inc. Effervescent Packaging Revenue (Million USD), Sales (K MT), Ex-factory Price (USD/MT)
    Figure 2016 Amerilab Technologies, Inc. Effervescent Packaging Business Region Distribution
    Figure Global 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Market Size (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Global 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Market Size (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Global 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Sales Price (USD/MT) Forecast
    Figure North America 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Consumption Volume (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure China 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Consumption Volume (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Europe 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Consumption Volume (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Southeast Asia 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Consumption Volume (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure Japan 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Consumption Volume (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Figure India 2017-2022 Effervescent Packaging Consumption Volume (K MT) and Growth Rate Forecast
    Table Global Sales Volume (K MT) of Effervescent Packaging by Type 2017-2022
    Table Global Consumption Volume (K MT) of Effervescent Packaging by Application 2017-2022
    Table Traders or Distributors with Contact Information of Effervescent Packaging by Region



Latest News

25-Feb-2019 | Chemicals & Materials

Industrial Alliance To Help Waste Management Market To Rise

An alliance of 28 large companies has launched a global organization to find solutions to remove plastic waste from the environment. The Alliance for the Disposal of Plastic Waste (AEPW), which collaborates with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), brings together chemical and plastic companies as well as consumer goods companies.

25-Feb-2019 | Electrical & Electronic Device

Insights Into Fish’s Swimming Adds Sensory Feedback Feature To Global Robotics Market

The fish have a random movement with excellent sensory feedback so as to help them navigate the world. According to the Johns Hopkins University researchers, the inclusion of this movement in understanding the active sensing behaviors of animals can actually help advance the robotic platform in terms of medical, industrial, defense, and commercial sectors. The sensors can help improve the inter ...

13-Feb-2019 | Technology

Battle Between Apple And Qualcomm Likely To Impact The Growth Of The Smartphone Market

The smartphone market has observed a tremendous transformation owing to advancement in technology, better services, the advent of 4G & 5G networks, and so on. Recently, Qualcomm Inc had filed a patent lawsuit against Apple Inc that imposed a veto on sales of few iPhone devices in Germany. This, certainly, was expected to pose a negative impact on the growth of the smartphone market in that ...

13-Feb-2019 | Food & Beverage

Belizean Turmeric Gets Place in Global Turmeric Market

A novel product manufactured from Belizean-grown turmeric has started to hit the shelves of grocery stores in Belize as well as in Canada. The latest product is supposed to catch the turmeric market in the rest of the Caribbean as well. This budge is supposed to offer novel opportunities to farmers as well as agro-processors in the Toledo district. Till date, more than 350 turmeric cultivators ...

05-Feb-2019 | Automobile

Automotive Mobility Market Growth Has A Handle On New AEye Product Sale

The automotive mobility market will be skyrocketing by this year as AEye, which is one of the world’s best artificial perception systems and the maker of iDAR has recently declared that it will be launching the AE110. The new technology has been built on the highly wide-ranging solid-state LiDAR patent portfolio. The AE110 is the only one possessing the firm's solitary software-linked ...